Tours of Prehistoric Sites in Kenya


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Kenya’s Great Rift Valley holds fossilized remains of humans dating back millions of years. The Leakey family has made notable contributions to prehistory studies throughout their home nation.

Enkapune Ya Muto

Sitting astride the equator, Kenya offers many historic tour sites for any history enthusiast. Ranging from ancient towns and World War 1 battlefields to monuments from antiquity – Kenya truly has something for every history buff to appreciate!

Louis and Mary Leakey, their son Richard and daughter-in-law Meave Leakey overcame skepticism to unearth fossils that tell the tale of early human evolution. Their efforts at sites like Kariandusi, Lomekwi 3, and Enkapune ya Muto have significantly advanced our scientific understanding of human origins and technological development.

Barbed harpoons discovered at a 90,000-year-old site called Blombos in South Africa prove that modern humans gradually adapted their foraging strategies towards livestock and food production rather than hunting and gathering for survival. A bimodal rainfall pattern may have promoted this behavioral change over time.

Lomekwi 3

WTAP team accidentally came upon Lomekwi 3, an archaeological site that produced what are now considered the oldest stone tools known to humanity, by taking an unexpected detour through West Turkana’s dry, rocky landscape in 2011. They discovered 149 tools from this site dated back 700,000 years that are linked with tool production: sheared-off “flakes” which were likely used for cutting to anvil rocks on which hammers were struck – all evidence for tool-making processes at work that predate Oldowan artifacts by this much, providing insight into human evolution theory as a whole.

Harmand’s study of the tools at Lomekwi 3 indicates that hominids crafted stones into pounding tools and platforms to strike flakes’ cores quickly. She was able to establish their age using rock strata dating as well as radiometric dating of embedded tuffs embedded within sedimentary layers beneath these tools; furthermore, she interpreted physical features of them to infer how these ancient people made them, including rotating cores as they pounded and struck them repeatedly against one another.

Koobi Fora

Koobi Fora offers an immersive tour through Kenya’s prehistoric heritage, featuring fossilized remains from five human and pre-human species such as Australopithecus anamnesis two million-year-old skull, Homo habilis/rudolfensis’, Paranthropus boisei’s, and Homo rectus remains.

The site also hosts a volcanic ash layer over 1.44 million years ago. This allows scientists to better comprehend the environmental and climate changes in Kenya.

What is now a barren desert with petrified forests once hosted vibrant grasslands home to elephants, giraffes, and giant tortoises four times larger than their contemporary cousins. Visiting this remote region provides the perfect opportunity to immerse yourself in Kenya’s prehistoric past.

Pate Island

Pate may not look impressive; it’s just an unassuming, dusty island with coconut groves and unemployed fishermen off Kenya near Somali pirate waters – yet its importance to China’s historical ties to Africa and Beijing’s influence in Africa cannot be overstated.

According to legend, in the 15th century, a fleet of Chinese ships led by Admiral Zheng He ran aground on this island, and its sailors made their way ashore, marrying local women, converting to Islam, and eventually creating an African-Chinese community whose descendants still inhabit this island today.

Siyu Fort (or Shanga, as the village is now known) offers one way of discovering this captivating history. Other possibilities include touring the ruins of an expansive Swahili house that featured decorative niches for imported porcelain bowls on the outskirts of Siyu or visiting its stunning beach featuring white dunes.


Kariandusi was one of the earliest Lower Paleolithic sites discovered in Kenya and lies near what once was a lake that connected all Rift Valley lakes into one basin, depositing sediments that covered and protected tools until their exposure by natural agents during lake precedence in early Holocene times.

This site boasts hundreds of Acheulean handaxes mainly made of obsidian and some from lava-based materials such as quartz-trachyte. Most have no signs of fluvial current reworking, supporting the hypothesis that they were created on-site before being distributed among nearby communities.

Kariandusi hosts an exquisite museum that displays excavated fossils and stone tools excavated from its surroundings, as well as one of only two straight-tusked elephant molars ever found in Africa – on display alongside other specimens at this small site museum gallery.


Olorgesailie prehistoric site is famed as a “factory of stone tools,” boasting the largest concentration of Acheulean handaxes. This unique site provides invaluable insights into the early human species by showing where tools were accumulated as camping spots.

As well as tools, fossils of baboons, zebras, elephants, and pigs have been discovered and used in reconstructing past climates through paleoclimatology – using various threads of evidence from past climates to establish an idea of current ones. Acheulean tools from Olorgesailie, as well as animal bones from Olorgesailie, helped reveal that the area used to be tropical; additionally, the fossils show how animals relocated as the climate shifted – while showing animals moving between areas as environments changed; all this combined makes up what is known as paleoclimatology; while fossils show how animals moved about looking for food sources while changing climate conditions affected the areas differently and this helps create an idea of current ones as well.

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